- Lack of privacy
- Emotional rapport
- Cultural beliefs
Expectation of negative outcome
- Past history of disappointing sex
- Sex hormones
Intrapersonal development history
- Trauma (sexual, physical, medical)
- Negative emotions (anxiety, fear, shame, guilt)
Lack of appropriate stimuli
- Partner dysfunction
- Relationship discord
- Absence of emotional intimacy
Adapted from Basson R et al. J Sex Med. 2004;1(1):24-34. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/17436095. ©2004 with permission from the International Society for Sexual Medicine.
The Sexual Tipping Point®* model
HSDD may occur if sexual excitation is too weak or sexual inhibition too strong, or a combination of both2
- The mind and body both inhibit and excite sexual response, which is described by the Sexual Tipping Point® model2
- The set point or threshold for the expression of a sexual response may vary dynamically within and between sexual experiences2
- The Sexual Tipping Point® demonstrates how both mental and physical contributors act as inhibitory or excitatory forces that may lead to sexual function and dysfunction2
*The Sexual Tipping Point is a registered trademark of the MAP Education & Research Fund, Inc.
The dual-control model illustrates the multifactorial etiology of sexual dysfunction2
Adapted from Perelman MA. J Sex Med. 2009;6(3):629-632. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/17436095. ©2009 with permission from the International Society for Sexual Medicine.
The brain, the body, and sexual response
Jim Pfaus, PhD
Dr. Pfaus is a consultant for AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Palatin Technologies, Inc.
References: 1. Basson R, Althof S, Davis S, et al. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in women. J Sex Med. 2004;1(1):24‐34. 2. Perelman MA. The Sexual Tipping Point®: a mind/body model for sexual medicine. J Sex Med. 2009;6(3):629‐632.